Steroidogenesis pathway animation

Cordycepin at an IC 50 of 200uM was able to induce dose-dependent growth inhibition possibly via G2/M-phase arrest in both 5637 and T-24 cell lines alongside downregulation of various molecules associated with G2/M phase (pCdc25c and Cdc25c, pCdc2 and Cdc2, cyclin B1). [46] p27 and p53 did not appeared to be involved in this arrest, with JNK activation by Cordycepin appearing to mediate the beneficial effects. [46] A concurrent reduction in AP-1, NF-kB, and MMP-9 genomic activity may accompany Cordycepin's actions in bladder cancer cells. [47]

The seven enzymes involved in the shikimate pathway are DAHP synthase , 3-dehydroquinate synthase , 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase , shikimate dehydrogenase , shikimate kinase , EPSP synthase , and chorismate synthase . The pathway starts with two substrates , phosphoenol pyruvate and erythrose-4-phosphate and ends with chorismate , a substrate for the three aromatic amino acids. The fifth enzyme involved is the shikimate kinase , an enzyme that catalyzes the ATP -dependent phosphorylation of shikimate to form shikimate 3-phosphate (shown in the figure below). [1] Shikimate 3-phosphate is then coupled with phosphoenol pyruvate to give 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate via the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase .

Steroid isolation , depending on context, is the isolation of chemical matter required for chemical structure elucidation, derivitzation or degradation chemistry, biological testing, and other research needs (generally milligrams to grams, but often more [38] or the isolation of "analytical quantities" of the substance of interest (where the focus is on identifying and quantifying the substance (for example, in biological tissue or fluid). The amount isolated depends on the analytical method, but is generally less than one microgram. [39] [ page needed ] The methods of isolation to achieve the two scales of product are distinct, but include extraction , precipitation, adsorption , chromatography , and crystallization . In both cases, the isolated substance is purified to chemical homogeneity; combined separation and analytical methods, such as LC-MS , are chosen to be "orthogonal"—achieving their separations based on distinct modes of interaction between substance and isolating matrix—to detect a single species in the pure sample. Structure determination refers to the methods to determine the chemical structure of an isolated pure steroid, using an evolving array of chemical and physical methods which have included NMR and small-molecule crystallography . [2] : 10–19 Methods of analysis overlap both of the above areas, emphasizing analytical methods to determining if a steroid is present in a mixture and determining its quantity. [39]

1. Metabolism
     Global/overview    Carbohydrate    Energy    Lipid    Nucleotide    Amino acid    Other amino    Glycan
     Cofactor/vitamin    Terpenoid/PK    Other secondary metabolite    Xenobiotics    Chemical structure
2. Genetic Information Processing
3. Environmental Information Processing
4. Cellular Processes
5. Organismal Systems
6. Human Diseases
7. Drug Development

Steroidogenesis pathway animation

steroidogenesis pathway animation

1. Metabolism
     Global/overview    Carbohydrate    Energy    Lipid    Nucleotide    Amino acid    Other amino    Glycan
     Cofactor/vitamin    Terpenoid/PK    Other secondary metabolite    Xenobiotics    Chemical structure
2. Genetic Information Processing
3. Environmental Information Processing
4. Cellular Processes
5. Organismal Systems
6. Human Diseases
7. Drug Development

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