The latest generation of the SDSS (SDSS-IV, 2014-2020) is extending precision cosmological measurements to a critical early phase of cosmic history ( eBOSS ), expanding its revolutionary infrared spectroscopic survey of the Galaxy in the northern and southern hemispheres ( APOGEE-2 ), and for the first time using the Sloan spectrographs to make spatially resolved maps of individual galaxies ( MaNGA ). Two smaller surveys will be executed as subprograms of eBOSS: the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey ( TDSS ) will be the first large-scale, systematic spectroscopic survey of variable sources; while the SPectroscopic IDentification of EROSITA Sources ( SPIDERS ) will provide an unique census of supermassive black-hole and large scale structure growth, targeting X-ray sources from ROSAT , XMM and eROSITA .
Chromatography has developed into a highly sophisticated and varied procedure which is used in chemical or bio-processing industries; the need to separate and purify a product from a complex mixture is a very necessary and highly important step in the production line. The separation can be achieved with great precision; even very similar compounds, such as proteins that may only vary by a single amino acid, can be separated this way. In fact, chromatography can purify any soluble or volatile substance if the right adsorbent material, carrier material, and operating conditions are employed.