Once more, an early study done on S-4 provided proof of full muscle regeneration in volunteers with degenerative disorders without the use of exercise and the minimum dosage of 3mg/kg/day. Changes can be seen anywhere from 1-2 weeks. This was the very first study classified S-4 as CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT by improving skeletal muscle strength, lean body mass, and a reduction in body fat [Chen et al., 2005; Gao et al., 2005; Kearbey et al., 2007]. Unfortunately, there are always some side effects that arise when using Because S-4 is a ligand by definition, the side effects will never be permanent even at supraphysiological dosages and can be easily avoided through proper dosing.
Formulations of topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, piroxicam, and indomethacin demonstrated significantly higher rates of clinical success (more participants with at least 50% pain relief) than matching topical placebo (moderate or high quality data ). Benzydamine did not. Three drug and formulation combinations had NNTs for clinical success below 4. For diclofenac, the Emulgel® formulation had the lowest NNT of (95% CI to ) in two studies using at least 50% pain intensity reduction as the outcome . Diclofenac plasters other than Flector® also had a low NNT of ( to ) based on good or excellent responses in some studies. Ketoprofen gel had an NNT of ( to ), from five studies in the 1980s, some with less well defined outcomes. Ibuprofen gel had an NNT of ( to ) from two studies with outcomes of marked improvement or complete remission. All other drug and formulation combinations had NNT values above 4, indicating lesser efficacy .