Hydrophilic steroid hormones

The mechanisms of mineralization are not fully understood. Fluorescent, low-molecular weight compounds such as tetracycline or calcein bind strongly to bone mineral, when administered for short periods. They then accumulate in narrow bands in the new bone. [28] These bands run across the contiguous group of bone-forming osteoblasts. They occur at a narrow (sub- micrometer ) mineralization front. Most bone surfaces express no new bone formation, no tetracycline uptake and no mineral formation. This strongly suggests that facilitated or active transport , coordinated across the bone-forming group, is involved in bone formation, and that only cell-mediated mineral formation occurs. That is, dietary calcium does not create mineral by mass action.

Fatty acids containing more than one carbon-carbon double bond ( polyunsaturated fatty acids ) are found in relatively minor amounts. The multiple double bonds are almost always separated by a CH 2 group (−CH 2 −CH=CH−CH 2 −CH=CH−CH 2 −), a regular spacing motif that is the result of the biosynthetic mechanism by which the double bonds are introduced into the hydrocarbon chain. The table lists the most common polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and arachidonic, together with several that are less common. Arachidonic acid (C 20 ) is of particular interest as the precursor of a family of molecules, known as eicosanoids (from Greek eikosi , “twenty”), that includes prostaglandins , thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds, produced by cells under certain conditions, have potent physiological properties, as explained in the section Intracellular and extracellular messengers . Animals cannot synthesize two important fatty acids, linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid), that are the precursors of the eicosanoids and so must obtain them in the diet from plant sources. For this reason, these precursors are called essential fatty acids.

Using tritiated glycine (glycine 3H) as an indicator of amino acid incorporation in protein synthesis in cartilage matrices, Mankin and Conger injected hydrocortisone acetate into rabbit knees. Their data showed a rapid and profound decrease in glycine incorporation that appeared to depend on dosages. Maximum decline was seen six hours after the injection. 28  They did a similar experiment using glycine 14C as the radiotracer, which showed a definite decrease in the rate of protein synthesis within two hours of the injection. They noted that the rate of the inhibitory effect of intraarticular hydrocortisone on cartilage protein synthesis was about twice that of the observed rate for corticosteroids given by intramuscular route. 29  One year later, researchers injected hydrocortisone into normal rabbit knees and produced thinning of the cartilage, and the development of fissures and fibrillations in the articular cartilage. They also found multiple small white deposits within the substance of the articular cartilage, which were found to represent cystic areas of degeneration within the middle zone of the cartilage matrix. These effects were most marked in the animals which had the greatest number of injections. 30 Deleterious effects of cortisone were reported by some researchers who noted that the drug inhibited the synthesis and deposition of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage. 31-33

Lipases serve important roles in human practices as ancient as yogurt and cheese fermentation. However, lipases are also being exploited as cheap and versatile catalysts to degrade lipids in more modern applications. For instance, a biotechnology company has brought recombinant lipase enzymes to market for use in applications such as baking, laundry detergents and even as biocatalysts [23] in alternative energy strategies to convert vegetable oil into fuel. [24] [25] High enzyme activity lipase can replace traditional catalyst in processing biodiesel, as this enzyme replaces chemicals in a process which is otherwise highly energy intensive, [26] and can be more environmentally friendly and safe. Industrial application of lipases requires process intensification for continuous processing using tools like continuous flow microreactors at small scale. [27] [28] Lipases are generally animal sourced, but can also be sourced microbially.

Hydrophilic steroid hormones

hydrophilic steroid hormones

Lipases serve important roles in human practices as ancient as yogurt and cheese fermentation. However, lipases are also being exploited as cheap and versatile catalysts to degrade lipids in more modern applications. For instance, a biotechnology company has brought recombinant lipase enzymes to market for use in applications such as baking, laundry detergents and even as biocatalysts [23] in alternative energy strategies to convert vegetable oil into fuel. [24] [25] High enzyme activity lipase can replace traditional catalyst in processing biodiesel, as this enzyme replaces chemicals in a process which is otherwise highly energy intensive, [26] and can be more environmentally friendly and safe. Industrial application of lipases requires process intensification for continuous processing using tools like continuous flow microreactors at small scale. [27] [28] Lipases are generally animal sourced, but can also be sourced microbially.

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