Anabolic pathways cellular respiration


Side-effects from the use of steroids are extremely common and can be quite significant. Most side-effects are reversible once the athlete stops usage although serious long-term side-effects and even death have occurred as a direct result of steroid use.
    •    Decreased sperm production and sex drive
    •    Increased aggression, irritability and mood swings
    •    Liver disorders
    •    Acne
    •    Baldness (alopecia)
    •    Hypertension (high blood pressure)
    •    Raised cholesterol
    •    Gynecomastia (development of over-sized mammary glands in males)
    •    Menstrual irregularities (in women)
    •    Hirsuitism (excessive hair growth occurring in females which follows the pattern of male hair growth, . facial)
    •    Deepening of the voice
    •    Reduced immunity
    •    Possible development of tumors (wilm’s tumor, prostate carcinoma and leukemia have been reported, although a connection is not proven)

With tens of millions of different man-made chemicals in production, it’s impossible to identify all of the antiandrogens. While many of the chemicals are likely very safe, there will still always be the ones that are antiandrogens and thus lower testosterone and DHT levels and activity. It would be easy to blame the manufacturers, but fact is that these chemicals are also incredibly useful and working to stop their production would be a fight against the impossible. You as a consumer have the ability to largely choose what you consume and what you’re exposed to…

Several studies concluded that diets low in fat (under 15% of total calories) significantly decreased testosterone levels while diets higher in fat (above 30% of total calories) increased serum testosterone levels. Rather than continuing with this discussion I will provide a link to an article which covers the subject quite nicely. To simplify everything that I have said, it seems that one should not lower fat below 15% of daily calories unless they would like to face extreme testosterone deficiencies. Likewise, one should not increase fat to say 40% in order to increase testosterone. Although fat increases testosterone to a degree, it is important to remember that testosterone is only a small piece of the larger puzzle. There are many other hormones and factors involved in building muscle other than just testosterone. By increasing fat to extremely high levels, there will be less “space” for carbohydrates and protein, both of which are very important for aforementioned reasons.


Figure 2. The structure of ATP. ATP is derived from the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) or adenylic acid, to which two additional phosphate groups are attached through pyrophosphate bonds (~P). These two bonds are energy rich in the sense that their hydrolysis yields a great deal more energy than a corresponding covalent bond. ATP acts as a coenzyme in energetic coupling reactions wherein one or both of the terminal phosphate groups is removed from the ATP molecule with the bond energy being used to transfer part of the ATP  to another molecule to activate its role in metabolism. For example, Glucose + ATP -----> Glucose-P + ADP  or  Amino Acid + ATP -----> AMP-Amino Acid + PPi.

Anabolic pathways cellular respiration

anabolic pathways cellular respiration


Figure 2. The structure of ATP. ATP is derived from the nucleotide adenosine monophosphate (AMP) or adenylic acid, to which two additional phosphate groups are attached through pyrophosphate bonds (~P). These two bonds are energy rich in the sense that their hydrolysis yields a great deal more energy than a corresponding covalent bond. ATP acts as a coenzyme in energetic coupling reactions wherein one or both of the terminal phosphate groups is removed from the ATP molecule with the bond energy being used to transfer part of the ATP  to another molecule to activate its role in metabolism. For example, Glucose + ATP -----> Glucose-P + ADP  or  Amino Acid + ATP -----> AMP-Amino Acid + PPi.

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