A number of arguments counted against the COX-3 hypothesis: COX-2-selective inhibitors react weakly with the COX-3 enzymatic site, because the site is identical to that in COX-1, but they are as good at reducing fever as older NSAIDs. The fever response has also been clearly associated with a rapid induction of COX-2 expression and an associated increase in prostaglandin E2 production, with no role for COX-1 or a COX-1 gene product (., COX-3). Finally, the sites of COX-3 expression do not appear to fit in well with those sites associated with fever, and the protein should be present within the hypothalamus rather than the cerebral cortex . All these considerations appeared to argue against COX-3 being the site of the antipyretic actions of NSAIDs and COX-2-selective agents. However, the results could be read as showing that paracetamol acts at a different site than the other NSAIDs and that more than one COX isoform contribute to the fever response.
A number of vital tasks carried out during sleep help maintain good health and enable people to function at their best. Sleep needs vary from individual to individual and change throughout your life. The National Institutes of Health recommend about 7-9 hours of sleep each night for older, school-aged children, teens, and most average adults; 10-12 for preschool-aged children; and 16-18 hours for newborns. There are two stages of sleep; 1) REM sleep (rapid-eye movement), and 2) NREM sleep (non-rapid-eye movement). The side effects of lack of sleep or insomnia include: